Many other signs also collapsed, sometimes causing significant damage to adjacent structures (Figure 4-35). Some received significant damage when the wind was blowing in that direction, the result of poor attention to detail. Fortunately, most buildings on Dauphin Island were not professionally designed. Figure 4-42 Roof damage showing the influence of roof shape, Dauphin Island. In other cases, the anchorage met neither the wind-lead nor anchorage requirements of the code. At most, they would have been designed for uplifts of abut 30 lb/ft2. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text. Hurricane Elena damage of Lodge Apartment in Pascagoula, Mississippi Photo measures 10 x 8.25 inches. Over the next two days, the storm moved toward the Florida coast and stalled in the Gulf about 50 miles off Cedar Key. In contrast, the eye of Hurricane Elena passed offshore, but approximately parallel to the island (Figure 1-2). The corner and edge conditions, appropriate for a roof covering, considered only the external pressure condition. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Figure 4-9 Mortar failure at roof anchor, Payless Shoe Source, Pascagoula. In another respect, the Standard Building Code is ill equipped to deal with this particular location, since the code assumes all buildings are located in open country. Anchor straps were used, but the building did not have sufficient resistance for the wind loads applied to the roof and overhang. It should be pointed out, however, that this eventuality is rarely considered in the design of such buildings. While this procedure is acceptable for high-rise buildings, it is unsuitable for low-rise buildings in a range where wind speeds change rapidly with height. This is then multiplied by a shape factor based on measurements of pressure coefficients made in wind tunnels. The effect of this underdesign is illustrated more clearly in Table 4-3, taken from Sparks (1987a). They also collapse under strong wind loads (Figure 4-34). Hurricane Elena carved out an erratic path over the Gulf of Mexico during Labor Day weekend, 1985. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Experience has shown that these structures generally perform adequately except when fasteners and sheeting are underdesigned, leading to domino-type failures of roofs and walls. On the negative side, a number of metal building systems performed in a less than satisfactory manner and sustained damage ranging from minor cladding failures to loss of an entire end bay of the building. Photo is dated 09--1985. Damage from the storms consisted of people having damaged or lost roofs, and wall damage. 1985: Hurricane Elena Satellite imagery of Hurricane Elena just before it … Figure 4-21 Preengineered metal building in Gulfport. Figure 4-36 Broadwater-Beach Marina in Biloxi/Gulfport area. Tidal surges flattened about 50 businesses and homes on the west end of Dauphin Island. These pressures are based on wind speeds at the midheight of each zone. Storm Surge from the Panhandle to Mississippi ranged from several feet to … For a detailed discussion of damage to metal buildings, see Appendix C. Employing the scheme advanced by Minor and Mehta (1979), buildings that receive specific, individualized design attention from professional architects and engineers for all aspects of the building from cladding to the foundation are classified as fully engineered. Figure 4-2 shows a new shopping mall in Gautier. 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